Tour de franc
The first stage at high altitude and first in the Alps, the tenth, was won by Quick-Step Floors rider Julian Alaphilippe from a large breakaway that included race leader Van Avermaet.
Eventually, Alaphillipe attacked and won his first Tour stage while Van Avermaet retained his yellow jersey and extended his lead to nearly two and a half minutes,  when many people thought he would not be retaining it.
In the steep finish of the eleventh, Thomas attacked in the final kilometre and passed lone breakaway rider Mikel Nieve Mitchelton—Scott to take the win.
Dumoulin and Froome arose as the likely contenders in Paris. After the Alps, it was basically down to three riders in contention, Thomas, Froome, and Dumoulin.
Vincenzo Nibali was forced to withdraw after fracturing a vertebrae in his back after being involved in an accident with a spectator near the summit of Alpe d'huez.
Smoke from flares and animosity towards Froome were a factor and better security was called for by many people for the final week. Stage fifteen, the start of the final week, was once again a breakaway victory.
Magnus Cort took Astana's second win in two days as there were no major changes overall. As the riders passed that point, there was still gas in the air.
The race was neutralized for about fifteen minutes because several riders had problems with their eyes and had to rinse them.
Later, Adam Yates, having taken the lead, fell on the final descent and handed the position and win to Alaphilippe, giving him his second stage win of the tour.
On the first of the three Pyrenan stages, seventeen, Froome's challenge faded on the approach to the summit of the Col de Portet and he dropped to third position in the general classification, 2: Dumoulin moved into second place, 1: Thomas was able to consolidate his position in the yellow jersey by picking up six bonus seconds in the sprint thereby extending his lead over Dumoulin to 2 min 5 s.
Thomas survived a scare when his back wheel locked, but completed the time trial successfully, finishing fourteen seconds behind Dumoulin taking a lead of 1 min 51 s into the final stage.
Four main individual classifications were contested in the Tour de France, as well as a team competition. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each rider's finishing times on each stage.
The first three riders would get 10, 6, and 4 seconds, respectively. Time bonuses of three, two and one seconds, would be given to the first three riders to cross a "bonus point" in each of the first nine mass-start stages of the race.
It would affect the general classification, but not the points. The second classification was the points classification.
Riders received points for finishing among the highest placed in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints during the stage. The points available for each stage finish were determined by the stage's type.
The third classification was the mountains classification. Points were awarded to the riders that reached the summit of the most difficult climbs first.
The final individual classification was the young rider classification. This was calculated the same way as the general classification, but was restricted to riders born on or after 1 January The final classification was a team classification.
This was calculated using the finishing times of the best three riders per team on each stage; the leading team was the team with the lowest cumulative time.
The number of stage victories and placings per team determined the outcome of a tie. In addition, there was a combativity award given after each stage to the rider considered, by a jury, to have "made the greatest effort and who demonstrated the best qualities of sportsmanship".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of teams and cyclists in the Tour de France. In stage two, Marcel Kittel , who was third in the points classification, wore the green jersey, because first placed Fernando Gaviria wore the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification and Peter Sagan , who was second in the points classification, wore the rainbow jersey of the world champion.
In stage two, Dylan Groenewegen , who was second in the best young rider classification, wore the white jersey, because first placed Fernando Gaviria wore the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification.
In stage three, Alexander Kristoff , who was third in the points classification, wore the green jersey, because first placed Peter Sagan wore the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification, and second placed Fernando Gaviria wore the white jersey as leader of the young rider classification.
In stage seventeen Philippe Gilbert did not start, so no rider wore the red bib as the most combative rider of previous stage.
Cycling portal France portal. Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 18 October Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 30 July The essential race preview".
Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 8 July Who are this year's favourites and can anybody challenge Chris Froome? Who are the bookmakers backing for victory?
Retrieved 31 July All you need to know about the th race for the yellow jersey". Who we're backing at the Tour de France".
Tour de France yellow jersey guide and top 10 predictions". Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 2 August Gaviria wins opener and takes first yellow jersey".
Peter Sagan wins crash-marred stage 2 and takes yellow jersey". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 August Gaviria wins stage 4 in Sarzeau".
Peter Sagan powers to stage five win". Retrieved 29 July Dan Martin wins on the Mur de Bretagne". Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 17 July It was waved away by the starter, Georges Abran, at 3: L'Auto hadn't featured the race on its front page that morning.
Among the competitors were the eventual winner, Maurice Garin , his well-built rival Hippolyte Aucouturier , the German favourite Josef Fischer , and a collection of adventurers including one competing as "Samson".
Many riders dropped out of the race after completing the initial stages as the physical effort the tour required was just too much.
Only a mere 24 entrants remained at the end of the fourth stage. Garin dominated the race, winning the first and last two stages, at The last rider, Millocheau, finished 64h 47m 22s behind him.
L'Auto ' s mission was accomplished as throughout the race circulation of the publication doubled, making the race something much larger than Desgrange had ever hoped for.
Such was the passion that the first Tour created in spectators and riders that Desgrange said the Tour de France would be the last.
By the following spring he was planning another Tour, longer at 11 stages rather than 6 — and this time all in daylight to make any cheating more obvious.
L'Auto's circulation rose from 25, to 65,;  by it was a quarter of a million. The Tour returned after its suspension during World War One and continued to grow, with circulation of L'Auto reaching , by The record claimed by Desgrange was , during the Tour.
Desgrange and his Tour invented bicycle stage racing. Initially he used total accumulated time as used in the modern Tour de France  but from to by points for placings each day.
By time, a rider coping with a mechanical problem—which the rules insisted he repair alone—could lose so much time that it cost him the race.
Equally, riders could finish so separated that time gained or lost on one or two days could decide the whole race.
Judging the race by points removed over-influential time differences but discouraged competitors from riding hard.
It made no difference whether they finished fast or slow or separated by seconds or hours, so they were inclined to ride together at a relaxed pace until close to the line, only then disputing the final placings that would give them points.
The format changed over time. The Tour originally ran around the perimeter of France. Cycling was an endurance sport and the organisers realised the sales they would achieve by creating supermen of the competitors.
Night riding was dropped after the second Tour in , when there had been persistent cheating when judges could not see riders. Desgrange said his ideal race would be so hard that only one rider would make it to Paris.
Early tours had long multi-day stages, with the format settling on 15 stages from until After this, stages were gradually shortened, such that by there were as many as three stages in a single day.
The first Tours were open to whoever wanted to compete. Most riders were in teams that looked after them. Some of the Tour's most colourful characters have been touriste-routiers.
One finished each day's race and then performed acrobatic tricks in the street to raise the price of a hotel. Until Desgrange forbade team members from pacing each other.
Until he demanded that riders mend their bicycles without help and that they use the same bicycle from start to end.
Exchanging a damaged bicycle for another was allowed only in By the end of the s, Desgrange believed he could not beat what he believed were the underhand tactics of bike factories.
The original touriste-routiers mostly disappeared but some were absorbed into regional teams. In Desgrange had a prostate operation. At the time, two operations were needed; the Tour de France was due to fall between them.
Desgrange persuaded his surgeon to let him follow the race. Desgrange died at home on the Mediterranean coast on 16 August Each organised a candidate race.
Both were five stages, the longest the government would allow because of shortages. On the Tour's return, the format of the race settled on between 20—25 stages.
Most stages would last one day but the scheduling of 'split' stages continued well in to the s. National teams contested the Tour until Some nations had more than one team and some were mixed in with others to make up the number.
National teams caught the public imagination but had a snag: The loyalty of riders was sometimes questionable, within and between teams. Sponsors were always unhappy about releasing their riders into anonymity for the biggest race of the year, as riders in national teams wore the colours of their country and a small cloth panel on their chest that named the team for which they normally rode.
The situation became critical at the start of the s. Sales of bicycles had fallen and bicycle factories were closing.
The Tour returned to trade teams in Doping had become a problem culminating in the death of Tom Simpson in , after which riders went on strike,   though the organisers suspected sponsors provoked them.
The Union Cycliste Internationale introduced limits to daily and overall distances, imposed rest days and tests were introduced for riders.
It was then impossible to follow the frontiers, and the Tour increasingly zig-zagged across the country, sometimes with unconnected days' races linked by train, while still maintaining some sort of loop.
The Tour returned to national teams for and  as "an experiment". In the early s the race was dominated by Eddy Merckx , who won the General Classification five times, the Mountains Classification twice, the Points Classification three times and a record 34 stages.
While the global awareness and popularity of the Tour grew during this time, its finances became stretched. That number expands to about during the race itself, not including contractors employed to move barriers, erect stages, signpost the route and other work.
The oldest and main competition in the Tour de France is known as the "general classification", for which the yellow jersey is awarded: The oldest and most sought after classification in the Tour de France is the general classification.
If a rider is leading more than one classification that awards a jersey, he wears the yellow one, since the general classification is the most important one in the race.
The leader in the first Tour de France was awarded a green armband. Each team brings multiple yellow jerseys in advance of the Tour in case one of their riders becomes the overall leader of the race.
Riders usually try to make the extra effort to keep the jersey for as long as possible in order to get more publicity for the team and its sponsors.
Eddy Merckx has worn the yellow jersey for 96 stages, which is more than any other rider in the history of the Tour de France.
Four riders have won the general classification five times in their career: The mountains classification is the second oldest jersey awarding classification in the Tour de France.
The mountains classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition and was first won by Vicente Trueba. Climbs are classified according to the steepness and length of that particular hill, with more points available for harder climbs.
The classification was preceded by the meilleur grimpeur English: The classification awarded no jersey to the leader until the Tour de France , when the organizers decided to award a distinctive white jersey with red dots to the leader.
At the end of the Tour, the rider holding the most climbing points wins the classification. Some riders may race with the aim of winning this particular competition, while others who gain points early on may shift their focus to the classification during the race.
The Tour has five categories for ranking the mountains the race covers. During his career Richard Virenque won the mountains classification a record seven times.
The point distribution for the mountains is as follows: The points classification is the third oldest of the currently awarded jersey classifications.
The classification was added to draw the participation of the sprinters as well as celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Tour.
Points are given to the first 15 riders to finish a stage, with an additional set of points given to the first 15 riders to cross a pre-determined 'sprint' point during the route of each stage.
The point classification leader green jersey is worn by the rider who at the start of each stage, has the greatest number of points.
In the first years, the cyclist received penalty points for not finishing with a high place, so the cyclist with the fewest points was awarded the green jersey.
From on, the system was changed so the cyclists were awarded points for high place finishes with first place getting the most points, and lower placings getting successively fewer points , so the cyclist with the most points was awarded the green jersey.
The number of points awarded varies depending on the type of stage, with flat stages awarding the most points at the finish and time trials and high mountain stages awarding the fewest points at the finish.
The winner of the classification is the rider with the most points at the end of the Tour. In case of a tie, the leader is determined by the number of stage wins, then the number of intermediate sprint victories, and finally, the rider's standing in the general classification.
The classification has been won a record six times by Erik Zabel and Peter Sagan. In the jersey was changed to red to please the sponsor.
For almost 25 years the classification was sponsored by Pari Mutuel Urbain, a state betting company. As of , the points awarded stands as: The leader of the classification is determined the same way as the general classification, with the riders' times being added up after each stage and the eligible rider with lowest aggregate time is dubbed the leader.
The Young rider classification is restricted to the riders that are under the age of Originally the classification was restricted to neo-professionals — riders that are in their first three years of professional racing — until In , the organizers made it so that only first time riders were eligible for the classification.
In , the organizers changed the rules of the classification to what they are today. This classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition , with Francesco Moser being the first to win the classification after placing seventh overall.
The Tour de France awards a white jersey to the leader of the classification, although this was not done between and Two riders have won the young rider classification three times in their respective careers: Jan Ullrich and Andy Schleck.
The most combative rider wears a number printed white-on-red instead of black-on-white next day. An award goes to the most aggressive rider throughout the Tour.
Already in a sort of combativity award was offered, when Sports Populaires and L'Education Physique created Le Prix du Courage , francs and a silver gilt medal for "the rider having finished the course, even if unplaced, who is particularly distinguished for the energy he has used.
It was initially not awarded every year, but since it has been given annually. Eddy Merckx has the most wins 4 for the overall award.
The team classification is assessed by adding the time of each team's best three riders each day. The competition does not have its own jersey but since the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow.
Until , the leading team would wear yellow caps. As of , the riders of the leading team wear yellow helmets.
There has been an intermediate sprints classification , which from awarded a red jersey  for points awarded to the first three to pass intermediate points during the stage.
These sprints also scored points towards the points classification and bonuses towards the general classification. The intermediate sprints classification with its red jersey was abolished in ,  but the intermediate sprints have remained, offering points for the points classification and, until , time bonuses for the general classification.
From there was a combination classification ,  scored on a points system based on standings in the general, points and mountains classifications.
The design was originally white, then a patchwork with areas resembling each individual jersey design. This was also abolished in The rider who has taken most time is called the lanterne rouge red lantern, as in the red light at the back of a vehicle so it can be seen in the dark and in past years sometimes carried a small red light beneath his saddle.
Such was sympathy that he could command higher fees in the races that previously followed the Tour. In and the organisers excluded the last rider every day, to encourage more competitive racing.
Prize money has always been awarded. From 20, francs the first year,  prize money has increased each year, although from to the first prize was an apartment offered by a race sponsor.
The first prize in was a car, a studio-apartment, a work of art, and , francs in cash. Prizes only in cash returned in Prizes and bonuses are awarded for daily placings and final placings at the end of the race.
The Souvenir Henri Desgrange , in memory of the founder of the Tour, is awarded to the first rider over the Col du Galibier where his monument stands,  or to the first rider over the highest col in the Tour.
A similar award, the Souvenir Jacques Goddet , is made at the summit of the Col du Tourmalet , at the memorial to Jacques Goddet , Desgrange's successor.
The Tour directors categorise mass-stage starts into 'flat', 'hilly', or 'mountain'. The first prologue was in The final time trial has sometimes been the final stage, more recently often the penultimate stage.
This stage rarely challenges the leader because it is flat and the leader usually has too much time in hand to be denied. But in , Pedro Delgado broke away on the Champs to challenge the second lead held by Stephen Roche.
He and Roche finished in the peloton and Roche won the Tour. In modern times, there tends to be a gentlemen's agreement: In the last stage was a time trial.
Greg LeMond overtook Laurent Fignon to win by eight seconds, the closest margin in the Tour's history.
The climb of Alpe d'Huez has become one of the more noted mountain stages. During the Tour de France it was the scene of a Riders complained of abusive spectators who threatened their progress up the climb.
Another notable mountain stage frequently featured climbs the Col du Tourmalet , the most visited mountain in the history of the Tour.
Col du Galibier is the most visited mountain in the Alps. The Tour de France stage to Galibier marked the th anniversary of the mountain in the Tour and also boasted the highest finish altitude ever: To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town.
The race may start with a prologue too short to go between towns in which case the start of the next day's racing, which would be considered stage 1, would usually be in the same town.
In director Christian Prudhomme said that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside France three times and within France twice.
With the switch to the use of national teams in , the costs of accommodating riders fell to the organizers instead of the sponsors and Henri Desgrange raised the money by allowing advertisers to precede the race.
The procession of often colourfully decorated trucks and cars became known as the publicity caravan. It formalised an existing situation, companies having started to follow the race.
The first to sign to precede the Tour was the chocolate company, Menier , one of those who had followed the race.
Preceding the race was more attractive to advertisers because spectators gathered by the road long before the race or could be attracted from their houses.
Advertisers following the race found that many who had watched the race had already gone home. Menier handed out tons of chocolate in that first year of preceding the race, as well as , policemen's hats printed with the company's name.
The success led to the caravan's existence being formalised the following year. The caravan was at its height between and the mids, before television and especially television advertising was established in France.
Advertisers competed to attract public attention. The writer Pierre Bost [n 8] lamented: It bellows, it plays ugly music, it's sad, it's ugly, it smells of vulgarity and money.
On top of that come the more considerable costs of the commercial samples that are thrown to the crowd and the cost of accommodating the drivers and the staff—frequently students—who throw them.
The number of items has been estimated at 11 million, each person in the procession giving out 3, to 5, items a day. Together, they weighed 32 tonnes 31 long tons; 35 short tons.
Numbers vary but there are normally around vehicles each year. Their order on the road is established by contract, the leading vehicles belonging to the largest sponsors.
The procession sets off two hours before the start and then regroups to precede the riders by an hour and a half. Vehicles travel in groups of five.
Their position is logged by GPS and from an aircraft and organised on the road by the caravan director—Jean-Pierre Lachaud [n 9] —an assistant, three motorcyclists, two radio technicians, and a breakdown and medical crew.
The first three Tours from — stayed within France. No teams from Italy, Germany, or Spain rode in because of tensions preceding the Second World War after German assistance to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War it was widely expected Spain would join Germany in a European war, though this did not come to pass.
Henri Desgrange planned a Tour for , after war had started but before France had been invaded. The route, approved by military authorities, included a route along the Maginot Line.
The first German team after the war was in , although individual Germans had ridden in mixed teams. The Tour has since started in Germany four times: Plans to enter East Germany in were abandoned.
It would be difficult to find accommodation for 4, people, he said. Our movement, which is nationalist and in favour of self-government, would be delighted if the Tour came to Corsica.
Most stages are in mainland France, although since the mids it has become common to visit nearby countries: The following editions of the Tour started, or are planned to start, outside France: The Tour was first followed only by journalists from L'Auto , the organisers.
The race was founded to increase sales of a floundering newspaper and its editor, Desgrange, saw no reason to allow rival publications to profit.
The first time papers other than L'Auto were allowed was , when 15 press cars were allowed for regional and foreign reporters.
The Tour was shown first on cinema newsreels a day or more after the event. They used telephone lines. In they broadcast the sound of riders crossing the col d'Aubisque in the Pyrenees on 12 July, using a recording machine and transmitting the sound later.
The first television pictures were shown a day after a stage. The national TV channel used two 16mm cameras, a Jeep, and a motorbike.
Film was flown or taken by train to Paris. It was edited there and shown the following day. The first live broadcast, and the second of any sport in France, was the finish at the Parc des Princes in Paris on 25 July The first live coverage from the side of the road was from the Aubisque on 8 July Proposals to cover the whole race were abandoned in after objections from regional newspapers whose editors feared the competition.
In the first mountain climbs were broadcast live on television for the first time,  and in helicopters were first used for the television coverage.
The leading television commentator in France was a former rider, Robert Chapatte. At first he was the only commentator.
He was joined in following seasons by an analyst for the mountain stages and by a commentator following the competitors by motorcycle. Competition between channels raised the broadcasting fees paid to the organisers from 1.
The two largest channels to stay in public ownership, Antenne 2 and FR3 , combined to offer more coverage than its private rival, TF1.
The two stations, renamed France 2 and France 3, still hold the domestic rights and provide pictures for broadcasters around the world. The stations use a staff of with four helicopters, two aircraft, two motorcycles, 35 other vehicles including trucks, and 20 podium cameras.
Domestic television covers the most important stages of the Tour, such as those in the mountains, from mid-morning until early evening.
Coverage typically starts with a survey of the day's route, interviews along the road, discussions of the difficulties and tactics ahead, and a minute archive feature.
The biggest stages are shown live from start to end, followed by interviews with riders and others and features such an edited version of the stage seen from beside a team manager following and advising riders from his car.
Radio covers the race in updates throughout the day, particularly on the national news channel, France Info , and some stations provide continuous commentary on long wave.
The Tour was the first to be broadcast in the United States. The combination of unprecedented rigorous doping controls and almost no positive tests helped restore fans' confidence in the Tour de France.
This led directly to an increase in global popularity of the event. The Tour is an important cultural event for fans in Europe.
Millions  line the route, some having camped for a week to get the best view. Crowds flanking the course are reminiscent of the community festivals that are part of another form of cycle racing in a different country — the Isle of Man TT.
The book sold six million copies by the time of the first Tour de France,  the biggest selling book of 19th-century France other than the Bible.
There had already been a car race called the Tour de France but it was the publicity behind the cycling race, and Desgrange's drive to educate and improve the population,  that inspired the French to know more of their country.
Patrick Le Gall made Chacun son Tour In , three films chronicled a team. By following their quest for the points classification, won by Cooke, the film looks at the working of the brain.
It was directed by Bayley Silleck, who was nominated for an Academy Award for documentary short subject in for Cosmic Voyage. Vive Le Tour by Louis Malle is an minute short of This minute documentary has no narration and relies on sights and sounds of the Tour.
After the Tour de France there are criteria in the Netherlands and Belgium. These races are public spectacles where thousands of people can see their heroes , from the Tour de France, race.
The budget of a criterium is over , Euro, with most of the money going to the riders. Jersey winners or big-name riders earn between 20 and 60 thousand euros per race in start money.
Allegations of doping have plagued the Tour almost since Early riders consumed alcohol and used ether , to dull the pain. In , the "Tour of Shame", Willy Voet , soigneur for the Festina team, was arrested with erythropoietin EPO , growth hormones , testosterone and amphetamine.
Police raided team hotels and found products in the possession of the cycling team TVM. Riders went on strike. After mediation by director Jean-Marie Leblanc , police limited their tactics and riders continued.
Some riders had dropped out and only 96 finished the race. It became clear in a trial that management and health officials of the Festina team had organised the doping.
Further measures were introduced by race organisers and the UCI , including more frequent testing and tests for blood doping transfusions and EPO use.
In , Philippe Gaumont said doping was endemic to his Cofidis team. In the same year, Jesus Manzano , a rider with the Kelme team, alleged he had been forced by his team to use banned substances.
Doping controversy has surrounded Lance Armstrong. He said he had used skin cream containing triamcinolone to treat saddle sores.
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